Monday, October 31, 2011

Big Foot Could be Gigantopithecus.

They are called Bigfoot by mostr people and American Indians known it as Sasquatch, but what ever it is occasional sittings have occurred right up to the present. It is called Bigfoot from the large foot prints the leave behind but based on the description it is most likely a larger ape.

This  is the Patterson Film it is most famous Bigfoot footage. This film was taken by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin in 1967 the approximate range to the Bigfoot is about 100 feet. There are those are claims that this film was a hoax bur even if it is; there many other sightings suggesting that Bigfoot could be a real animal. If this film is genuine then it supports the identification of Sasquatch as being a type of large ape. The Yeti of which has been sighted in the Himalayas of Asia. Also known as the abominable snow man; it leaves the same large prints as Sasquatch.
So is there an animal known to science that could account for both groups of sightings? The answer is yes. They are known only by fragmented fossils found in as Asia but they fit the description perfectly. These anumales are a type of large ape called Gigantopithecus. While most of  its fossils are found in Southeast Asia, the possibility that some migration to North America is not impossible. It would stand at 10 feet and would be a prefect match for Bigfoot. So if Bigfoot is real it is most likely a living Gigantopithecus making it a living fossil.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Introducing Genesis Science Mission

Genesis Science Mission is an interactive Creation Science experience that presents and illustrates both General and Creation Science principles through video and interactive material. The site is under development and so more is being added to it on a regular bases.
The interactive material helps improve your understanding of scientific principles by allowing you to play with them in fun and safe manner.

Friday, October 28, 2011

The Science of Cosmology

Cosmology: The scientific discipline dealing with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe
A cosmology: Any theory or doctrine that describes the natural order of the universe.

Every civilization has had a cosmology as far back as it known and they have usually taken the form of a philosophically based mythology.  Increased knowledge in Physics and Chemistry has resulted in a more scientific approach but philosophic assumptions still play a major role in Cosmology.

The expansion of the Universe was discovered by Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 by measuring the redshifts of distant galaxies. In 1998 it was discovered the expansion of the universe to be accelerating based on observations of type Ia supernovae.

Cosmic Background Radiation is the thermal black body spectrum that is nearly uniform in every direction, It represents a temperature of 2.725 K peaking in the microwave range a frequency of 160.2 GHz, with a wavelength of 1.9 mm. It was first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The CBR temperature fluctuations discovered by the WMAP data of the entire sky showed an average temperature is 2.725 Kelvin with tiny temperature fluctuations spanning about 0.0002 degrees Celsius.

The Big Bang Cosmology is the current Cosmology of the scientific establishment. The model starts with all mater and space squeezed into an infinitesimal dot called a singularity. This infinitesimal dot suddenly underwent an extremely energetic expansion commonly described as an explosion. Over time the heat of this expansion cooled eventually forming galaxies, stars, planets and eventually us. CBR is seen as residual heat from the Big Bang red shifted by the expansion of t he universe. The Big Bang is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. First there is absolute naturalism with no intelligents or purpose being allowed in the process. The universe is considered to be unbounded with no edge that is no point beyond which there is no mater. Finally there is the cosmological principle which states that the universe looks the same from every place. The goal is to deal with the fact that we seem to be at the center of the universe by making every place look like the center
There Other Naturalistic Cosmologies such as the steady state cosmology which has no beginning or end to the universe but requires a continual source of new matter. There is a new Cosmology called the electric universe which depicts much of the phenomenon in universe as being electrical in nature. It is not yet fully developed.  

Creationist Cosmology is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. The first is God as the creative intelligents with purpose in the process. The universe viewed as bounded with an edge beyond which no mater is found. There is a center to the universe and the Earth is near it. Now this is not Geodetic because the universe does not rotate around the Earth Plugging these assumptions along with the observed expansion into relativity results in time dilation at the center where the Earth would have been producing a time line on Earth consistent with the Biblical account. CBR is seen as the light God created on day one red shifted by an expansion factor of about 3,300.

In conclusion Cosmology deals with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe but is heavily dependent on philosophical assumptions since we only see the universe a one location that is the Earth. Evolutionary and Creationist Cosmologies are based on different assumptions producing different results for the same data.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

The Manner in Which Creationists Use the Term Evolutionist Explained

Creationists often use the term Evolution to refer to entire naturalistic view of origins starting with the Big Bang and going to Man. Creationists will also use the term Evolutionist to refer to proponents of the Big Bang to Man view of origins.
The Creationist usage of the terms Evolution and Evolutionist has recently come under attack by those actively opposing creation Science. The claim is that evolution only refers to biological evolution which only goes from a first cell to man. It is further claimed that Creationists are ether ignorant or misrepresenting the term Evolution. It goes on to claim that abiogenesis, planetary formation, stellar formation and the Big Bang are all independent disciplines unrelated to evolution.

Creationists fully understand that these are different disciplines and we do no misrepresent the term Evolution because it is wrong to claim that they are unrelated to biological evolution since together they form one complete view of origins. In fact they are all referred to as evolution by main stream sources like NASA and the NSF. They use distinguishing terms like biological evolution, chemical evolution, planetary evolution, stellar evolution cosmic evolution.

Biological evolution refers to the development of life. Chemical evolution refers to the origin of life. Planetary evolution refers to formation and development of planetary bodies. Stellar evolution refers to the formation, development and death of stars. Cosmic evolution refers to the beginning, development and possible end of the universe. Some times this by itself refers the entire Big Bang to man concept.

Note that these are all labeled evolution so it is not inappropriate to refer to them all collectively as Evolution its proponents as Evolutionists. The terms Evolution and Evolutionists are often used by Creationists simply do to a lack of better terms.

I have also used the terms General Evolution and General Evolution theory to help avoid confusion.


Wednesday, October 26, 2011

An Introduction to the Science of Chemistry

Chemistry: The field of science that is the study of the interactions of atoms to form molecules and their properties.

The beginnings of Chemistry go back to before known civilization with fire and metal work. According to the book of Genesis in the Bible metal work goes back to Tubal-cain who lived before the Flood. Modern Chemistry grew out of Alchemy and its search to turn metals like lead into gold and the so called elixir of life. Chemistry got much from Alchemy particularly its affinity research and experimentation. Once Chemistry broke from Alchemy it lead to an explosion of knowledge about the nature and structure of matter.

Chemistry begins with individual atoms of different elements such as hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Atoms come together to form molecules such as water which is made of one oxygen atom getting together with two hydrogen atoms, methane which is made of one carbon atom getting together with four hydrogen atoms and carbon dioxide which is made of two oxygen atoms getting together with one carbon atom. These are all different substances with different properties.

The Periodic Table is a list of the chemical elements organized by recurring properties. The information about each element included varies but often includes element’s name, atomic number, symbol, and atomic weight. It is a vary use full took in Chemistry and one the most recognizable things associated with Chemistry.

Chemical reactions are the process by which atoms come together or are rearranged to form new molecules. There are two main types of chemical reactions. Endothermic reactions which use heat energy in forming new molecules and exothermic reactions which release heat energy in forming new molecules. Exothermic reactions are some times explosive which is a common danger in Chemistry.

There are two main fields of chemistry. Organic chemistry which is chemistry based on the element Carbon and may or may not involve life and inorganic chemistry which is chemistry not based on the element Carbon.

In conclusion chemistry is a major field of science and it is the most experiment based field of science. Chemistry embodies the ideal of science stated in the scientific method more than any other field of science.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

The Science of Biology

Biology: The study of life and living organisms
Life: That which undergo metabolism, grows and reproduce.
Cell: The basic functional unit of life.
Organism: A contiguous living system.

DNA which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid is the information storage device of  living cells. Amazingly DNA is actually a digitally encoded information storage system.

Cells are the basic functional unit of life and yet they are still highly complex organized systems of information, structure, molecular machines and much more. Each cell has a level of complexity similar to a city but possesses more organization making even the simplest living cell more complex and organized than any man made machine.  

Single-cell life includes organisms made of only one cell some are bacteria some are single cell animals and single celled plants such as blue green algae. Multi-cellular life includes organisms consisting of multiple cells usually billions such as plants animals and people.

In really there are essentially only two possible origins for life: A naturalistic origin called abiogenesis or a supernaturally intelligently designed origin. Other suggestions don’t actually solve the problem but merely move it some place else in the Universe.

Abiogenesis has the problem of overcoming the humongous organized complexity gap between a living cell and the chemical constituents that make up a cell. Furthermore no natural process actually demonstrated to exist can accomplish the task but known natural processes indicate that it can not happen. Going from non living chemicals to a living cell requires a huge decrease in entropy and statistical thermodynamics shows that natural processes tend to go towards increased entropy; which is the opposite direction of that needed for abiogenesis. Now adding energy can decrease entropy it only does so if applied in a sufficiently organized manner and no known natural process can apply energy in a sufficiently organized manner to achieve abiogenesis suggesting that abiogenesis is impossible. 

A supernaturally intelligently designed origin of life does not have these problems.  First of all it is known that intelligents can create complex organized systems because humans do so. Second it is known that intelligents can encode a functioning genome because human scientists have done so. Intelligents does have a sufficient degree of organized complexity to create a living cell. Furthermore the intelligents that started life in the universe would have to be from out side it and thus would be supernatural.

Evolutionists will often claim that evolution is just change over time in the inherited traits found in a population. If this were really all that was meant by evolution there would be no issue since creationists agree that there is change over time in the inherited traits of a population.

The real dispute is with the idea that observed variations can start with one cell and produce all life found on earth including man. Going from microbe to man requires adding a lot of information by nothing but than mutations and natural selection. The Evolutionist argument is that given enough time mutations and natural selection can produce any thing, however such large degrees of change has never actually been observed. They are however a necessary assumption for a totally naturalistic origin of current living systems.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Neutrinos Moving Faster than Light is not the Problem for Einstein’s Theory of Relativity that Some Claim.

The recent report by CERN that they measured neutrinos going faster than the speed of light by about 20 parts per million has made quite a stir. Given that the speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s these neutrinos were going 6 km/s faster than light which could easily be an experimental error.

It would not be a problem for Special Relativity since not traveling at or faster than the light only applies to particles with a real non zero rest mass. A particle like a photon that has a zero rest mass travels at the speed of light. Particles that travel faster than light have been speculated for years under the name tachyons. Tachyons would have a negative imaginary rest mass giving it a real non zero mass at speeds above the speed of light.

Also quantum effects like quantum tunneling provided another way around the light barrier by allowing particles to instantly skip over an area of space without actually going through it while traveling sub light through the space it does go through thus not violating Special Relativity. 

Friday, October 21, 2011

Quantum Mechanics and the Bible in Physics.

If as it claims the Bible is the word of God then we should expect its view of reality to fit with the reality we see around us. The Bible describes events and ideas that do not fit well with the clock work deterministic universe of Classical Mechanics. The clock work deterministic universe idea made many of the events in the Bible seem to be impossible. However Quantum Mechanics eliminates this purely deterministic universe. It turns out the Quantum Mechanics is a good fit the Bible and the following examples show why this is the case.

Creation out of nothing.

Genesis 1:1, In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Exodus 20:11, For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is…
Proverbs16:4, The LORD hath made all things for himself…
Hebrews 11:3, Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

The implication is that God made every thing from nothing and Quantum Mechanics shows this to be possible. Quantum Mechanics has what are called virtual particles that pop in and out of existence all the time. Wave-particle duality eliminates the idea of particles as solid ball like objects. Particles are exhibiting their wave nature have only a quasi existence where they are essentially every place at once.

These facts alone suggest the Universe could be created out of nothing however the Big Bang is thought to have started with a quantum fluctuation from nothing. That is not say that the Bible agrees with the Big Bang theory because it does not but the point is that Quantum Mechanics supports a creation from nothing.

By Him All Things Consist

Colossians 1:17, And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.

This verse indicates that the universe is actively maintained by God. The indeterminacy of Quantum Mechanics is expected with intelligent control of the universe.  General Intelligent Design is a perfect match to this concept. General Intelligent Design depicts quantum mechanical waves and their collapse as being the result of intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. In this case God would be the intelligent agent behind Quantum mechanical waves and their collapse

Post Resurrection Appearances and Disappearances of Jesus

According to the Bible, Jesus Christ died on the cross to save us of our sin this salvation comes to the individual by acceptance of God’s offer as a free gift. He then rose from the dead on the third day. Following His resurrection Jesus was no longer restricted in space. He could now appear at will where he would and then disappear again.  Even a locked room was not a problem since Jesus appeared to his disciples inside as locked room and then He then disappeared again.

It turns out that Quantum Mechanics provides a possible scientific description of these events. A particles wave function can have a high probability at one point and a low or non in another. If the waves swap positions then the probabilities would be swapped and a particle which is in the first position will instantly jumps to the other. If a wave function starts with a high probability outside a locked room and a low or zero probability inside a locked room and that wave function changes so that it has a high probability inside a locked room and a low or zero probability outside a locked room then the object would suddenly appear inside the locked room.

If Jesus started out side a locked room His body would have wave function starts with a high probability outside the locked room and a low or zero probability inside the locked room. If He could change His wave function at will; not a stretch since He is God; to a high probability inside a locked room and a low or zero probability outside a locked room then He would suddenly appear inside the locked room. Changing His wave function back again He would then disappear again. This provides a possible scientific description of the post resurrection appearances and disappearances of Jesus. This is just a possible description of how He could do these things and in no way detracts from the miraculous nature of these events.
Existence of the Soul and free will

The existence of the soul and free will have come under attack by two philosophical concepts materialism and determinism. Materialism is the theory that the only reality that exists is physical matter and that everything can be explained in terms of matter physical phenomena including mind, thought, feeling, consciousness and will.

Determinism is the doctrine that all events are fully determined by preceding events and conditions including human choices and actions.

As a result of these doctrines freedom of choice is considered illusory. It needs to be realized that modern studied of neurology do allow any consideration of dualism is dealing with the mind / brain issue. Only theories that assume from the start that them mind is nothing but a by product of the brain are allowed consideration so it is no surprise that there conclusion leave not place fore the sole or free will.

Both materialism and determinism fit well classical mechanics but quantum mechanics refutes both ideas. Under quantum mechanics the future position of a particle can not be determined precisely which refutes determinism. Under quantum mechanics particles do not have an exact position and can be everywhere at once which refutes materialism.

By refuting materialism and determinism quantum mechanics also refutes the naturalistic view of the mind that is the idea that the mind is nothing but the neuron activity of the brain opening the door to two alternatives dualism and quantum mind theory. Dualism where the mind and brain are totally separate and quantum mind theory which depicts the brain as a quantum computer. Both ideas allow for free will and the possibility of life after death.

Quantum Mechanics allows for a new theory of dualism where the mind and brain are separate but connected by quantum entanglement. Quantum mechanics then becomes the means of mind / brain interactions.  Based on this view mind is not limited to the brain thus can have free will and survive the death of the brain.

Quantum mind theory says that the mind results from quantum activity in brain. Basically the brain is seen as quantum computer where quantum indeterminately allows for the possibility of free will. Quantum nonlocality and entanglement allows for the possibility of the mind surviving the death of the brain.

The point is quantum mechanics provides for the possibility of a non materialistic mind. So is there evidence for a quantum mechanical aspect to the brain. Yes: in he synaptic activity in the brain. Calcium ions that trigger exocytosis needs to cross a barrier to the synaptic vesicle and the Calcium ions can not classically cross this barrier. As a result quantum tunneling is needed fore the Calcium ions to cross this barrier but the odds of this occurring are 1 in 10,000,000.  The problem is that the functioning of the brain requires this quantum tunneling to occur on demand. The only way to get quantum tunneling on demand is for the mind to be able to control quantum events. This means that the mind must be a result of more than synaptic activity. There needs to be an immaterial aspect to the mind that does not depend on the brain and that controls this quantum tunneling.

As a result quantum mechanics shows the Biblical view of man is possible. It allows for the possibility of free will and the possibility of an eternal soul.

The point is Quantum Mechanics allows for possibilities that classical mechanics does not. Consider what a being with total control of quantum phenomenon could do such a being would literally be capable of miracles. For over 200 years the idea of miracles has been criticized. However quantum mechanics shows how miracles could be possible. It is actually powerful support for the truth of the Bible.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Force It Really Moves

Force: That which causes a free body to undergo acceleration.

There are 4 fundamental  forces in Nature.
Gravity: The mutual attraction of all matter in the universe.
Electromagnetism: The mutual attraction and repulsion of charged partials.
Weak nuclear force: Regulates some types of nuclear decay including Bata decay.
Strong nuclear force: The Binding force of the atomic nucleus.

Forces cause the acceleration of mater which isby definition the main function of force . It can overcome other forces such as friction gravity abd the Strong nuclear force overcomes the mutual electromagnetic repulsion of protons that would blow every atomic nucleus apart. Force also holds things together. The electromagnetic force holds an object together including your body and the strong nuclear force holds atomic nuclei together. It can break things apart such as bombs or the force resulting from ramming two things together which can cause them to shatter and the peaces to fly apart.

Regardless of its source force causes acceleration. Force can also stop acceleration by resisting another force. Force holes thing together so force does indeed bind us together so it looks like Ben Kenobi got it partly right. Force makes our existence possible.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Quantum Physics Interpretations

The following interpretations try to explain what is really going on behind Quantum Mechanics. Each often has unique basic concepts and they are not necessarily mutually exclusive since there is some overlap of concepts.

Schrödinger's cat

Schrödinger's cat was a thought experiment that involved placing a cat in a sealed box with a vile of poison that would kill the cat if broken, a radioactive material and a gaiter counter set to drop a hammer on the vile of poison if it detects a radiometric decay event. When the cat is later observed it is found to be ether alive or dead and each these interpretation has a different description of the state of the cat before it is observed.

Copenhagen interpretation

The Copenhagen interpretation says that a quantum particle doesn't exist in any one state but exists in all of it’s possible states at once. A soon as a quantum particle is observed it is essentially forced into one of the possible states and that is the state that is actually observed. Since it may be forced into a different state each time is why quantum particles behave erratically. The state of a particle being in all possible states at once is called an object's coherent superposition. When an object is observe the superposition collapses the object is forced into one of the states of its wave function.

According to the Copenhagen interpretation Schrödinger's cat would be both dead and alive at the same time until actually observed. Ultimately the only thing that really matters are the experimental results it does not really seek to explain what it happening behind the experimental results. Currently it is the most popular interpretation, but it is losing ground.

Consistent histories

The consistent histories interpretation was put forward by Robert Griffiths in 1984. It works backwards from the result of an experiment and says that only a few possible histories are consistent with quantum mechanics and that Quantum mechanics simply predicts the probabilities of various alternative histories Schrödinger's cat is either alive or dead but not  both Quantum mechanics just gives the probability of which it may be. This idea is not very popular because it still doesn't explain how a particle can go through two slits and interfere with itself and it is considered by some to be pretty much the same as Copenhagen.

Transactional interpretation

The Transactional interpretation was published by John Cramer in July 1986. It sees quantum mechanical waves as stand waves in space time that constructively interfere were the particle is  and destructively interfere every place else. These waves go both forward and backward in time. There is an "exact canceling" of waves so that is no "net" energy travels backwards in time. In the case of Schrödinger's cat tt is alive until the interference patterns line up in the sample to result in a decay event.

Bohm interpretation

The Bohm interpretation; also called the pilot-wave theory; depicts the quantum wave guides the particle. It is totally deterministic and good at explaining quantum phenomenon but requires a large number of hidden variables that can not be directly measured. The hidden variables have the side affect of rendering the interpretation untestable. Schrödinger's cat is alive until one the pilot-waves in the sample to causes a decay event.

Many-worlds interpretation

The many-worlds interpretation was proposed by Hugh Everett III in 1957. Sees the world as constantly splitting off into multiple universes in which every possible quantum event occurs. This fits perfectly with Evolution even the most improbable events occurred in some of these universes.

In the case of Schrödinger's cat the universe keeps spitting off into each alternative in one the cat lives and in the other dies. They both happen in different quantum universes.

There is no evidence for this interpretation since the alterative worlds would be forever out of reach. While quantum interference between adjacent worlds has been suggested, the possible evidence for it. Successful interpretation of single particle interference is not unique to the Many-worlds interpretation. So acceptance of this interpretation is purely philosophical and not scientific since it can not be tested.

Consciousness causes collapse

With consciousness causes collapse consciousness causes collapses the quantum mechanical waves. It is usually associated with observation. There is some supporting evidence for this though the evidence is not exclusive to this interpretation. It is compatible with General Intelligent Design as well.  This supporting evidence comes from the human brain. It turns out that synaptic activity in the brain requires quantum tunneling on demand. This shows some degree of control by the mind of quantum wave functions.

Thus view fits well with both New Age / Hinduism, and the Christian world view. With New Age / Hinduism it provides a way for the mind to interact with the world beyond the five senses. With the Christian world view, since God is the ultimate mind it provides a model for his interaction with our world. 

Schrödinger's cat It would be both alive and dead until observed then the mind of the observer would collapse the wave function choosing one or the other. It is similar to the Copenhagen interpretation in this regard.

General Intelligent Design

General Intelligent Design also known as General Grand Unification (GGU) was published by Dr. Robert A. Herrmann professor of Mathematics retired U. S. Naval Academy.

By this view quantum mechanical waves and their collapse results from intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. These intelligent agents could be one or more intelligent beings or mechanisms preprogrammed by an intelligent being.  This is supported by evidence of synaptic activity in the brain requiring quantum tunneling on demand showing some degree of intelligent control of quantum wave functions.

This interpretation fits well with the Christian world view. The idea of an intelligence controlling the universe at its fundamental level fits well with God as described in the Bible. In the case of Schrödinger's cat, the cat is a live until the controlling intelligent agent decides to cause a decay event to takes place and then the cat dies.

The Mind and Quantum Mechanics

The relationship between the mind and Quantum Mechanics is mentioned here because it provides evidence in support for the last two interpretations consciousness causes collapse and General Intelligent Design. It turns out that the synaptic barriers of dendrite brain cells are too thick for nerve signals to classically cross. This means that nerve signals need to use Quantum tunneling to cross the dendrite synaptic barrier. The odds of the nerve signal tunneling across the dendrite synaptic barrier are 1 chance in  10,000,000,  Yet for our brains to function these tunneling events need to occur on demand this is evidence for the mind being able to control quantum phenomenon and against the naturalistic model of the mind as well.

In conclusion there are many ways of interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Acceptance or rejection of each often has more to do with philosophy than science. each fits better with some philosophical views than others and each interpretation differs in how it sees the fundamental nature of reality.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

The EPA’s Carbon Dioxide Pollution Myth is. Busting

The Environmental Protection Agency has declared carbon dioxide to be a dangerous pollutant and they have started regulating it accordingly. This is total stupid since the notion of carbon dioxide being an air pollutant is absurd because carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring atmospheric gas that is exhaled by people and animals and used by plants. Not only do plants thrive on higher levels of carbon dioxide and it is not dangerous because you breathe it in and out in every breath of your life with no affects.

Carbon dioxide is actually the most naturally occurring gas for terrestrial planetary atmospheres. The Solar system has three terrestrial planets with substantial atmospheres two of them Mars and Venus have predominately carbon dioxide atmosphere. Even Earth would have a nitrogen / carbon dioxide atmosphere if it were not for plants producing lots of free oxygen. So once again carbon idea of dioxide being a pollutant is absurd.

You may be asking about climate change or global warming or what ever the latest term of the week may be? Well if you ignore the fact that the computer models used to support man caused global warming make the thermodynamically impossible assumption that as the global temperature raises the amount of heat lost to space is reduced. If you also ignore the Climate Gate emails that show that climate data has been manipulated.

If you ignore all this and take the proponents of global warming at their word, they are only predicting a rise in temperature comparable to that of the Medieval Warm Period. The Medieval Warm Period was actually beneficial allowing the Vikings to reach America and helping Europe recover from the black plaque and producing increased food production and prosperity.  So once again carbon idea of dioxide being a pollutant is absurd.

Now the question is why did the EPA take such a ludicrous step? The answer is Cap and Trade. President Obama could not get congress to pass Cap and Trade; a scam that would enrich those behind the plan at the expense of the U.S. economy. After congress refused to pass Cap and Trade seeing it as a job killer during a time of high unemployment President Obama used the EPA to do get it by way of regulation. The EPA ruling carbon dioxide as a dangerous pollutant is President Obama’s way of doing this.


Monday, October 17, 2011

Motion in Physics it Moves Things

Motion: The change in the location of an object with respect to time.

Strait line motion is basic motion in a strait ling with no force involved thus no acceleration and a constant velocity. Circular motion is motion around a central point it results from a force being applied to an object at a right angle to the objects motion such as gravity keeping a satellite in orbit is a good example.

Relativity theory shows that all motion is relative since it can only be measured relative to a given observer. These measurements are also reversible such that if I see someone moving a given direction at a given speed, he sees me going the opposite direction at the same speed.

Motion is describes the changing of location of an object. Motion can be both strait and curved. It can only be described relative to a chosen point of reference. Motion is how we get from place to place.

The Quantization of Quantum Mechanics

Quantization: The situation where physical quantities like position, energy and momentum can have only certain discrete values.

While a particle’s position, energy and momentum in free empty space are continuous, if the particle is bound to an area of space can only have certain discrete values. The energy contained in a given frequency of electromagnetic waves is quantized in that it always has the same value at the same frequency. The electromagnetic energy is found in discrete packet called photons.

The quantization of the energy od an electron within an atom explains much of their behavior such as why atoms emit only discrete frequencies of light. An electron that is in a low orbit of an atom can absorb a photon causing the electron  to jump to a higher orbit. The electron then emits a photon jumping back to the lower orbit.

The quantization of space-time us based on several natural units proposed by Max Planck that are based on five universal physical constants: Gravitational constant, Reduced Planck constant, Speed of light in a vacuum, Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant

While most of them have no physical significance two of them Planck Length and Planck Time are the smallest possible measurements of space-time according our current understanding of the laws of Physics because of the  uncertainty principle when a plied to these scales. This suggests that time and space themselves are Quantized.

Planck Length = 1.616 252 × 10−35 m

Planck Length is the smallest measurement of length that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today.

Planck Time = 5.391 24 × 10−44 s

Planck Time is the amount of time it takes a photon to cross a Planck Length. It is the smallest measurement of time that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today.

Quantization requires physical quantities like position, energy and momentum to have discrete values explaing much of what goes on in side atom and based on our current understanding of the laws of physics it suggest that time and space are quantized.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

The Work of Energy

Energy: The ability of a system to do work.

According to Special Relativity energy has mass and that the mass all matter is a result of energy. E = mc22 so all substance is based on energy.

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics says that energy in any interaction is conserved. That is the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. It is also stated as energy can not be created or destroyed but it can change forms.

The SI Unit for energy is the joule (J):  Newton-meters = m2·kg·s-2

Common Types of Energy

Heat energy: The energy associated with the temperature of an object.
Light energy: The energy associated with visible light.
Electrical energy: The energy associated with an electric current.
Chemical energy: The energy associated with the reactions involving molecules.
Nuclear energy: The energy associated with reactions involving atomic nuclei.
Kinetic energy: The energy associated with motion.
Potential energy: The energy of a system based on its position or condition. Stored energy.
Rest mass energy: The energy of an object that is not in motion. E= mc2

Energy is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass and relativity shows them to be inter-related. Space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming Gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time. 

In conclusion in common experience energy is what moves us and allows us to move thing. Physics has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Matter in Physics

Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume. It is the general term for the substance of which all physical objects are made.

Mass:  In the generally sense it is the amount of matter in an object. It is the term for two properties of matter that are equal in value: inertial mass gravitational mass.

Inertial Mass:  The resistance of a body to acceleration when responding to force.

Gravitational Mass: Property of an object that determines the strength of its gravitational field and its reaction to gravity.           

The existence of a relationship between the inertial and gravitational mass of an object is evident from the fact that they have same the value. However General Relativity shows that inertial and gravitational mass are two aspects of the same thing.

Special Relativity shows that an objects mass is equivalent to the amount of energy an object contains.

The SI unit of mass is the kilogram which is a mass equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram. It is based on the gram which is the mass of 1cm3 of water and that kilogram is the mass of 1000 cm3 of water.

There are 3 main states of matter with distinctions based on differences in bulk properties. They form a triad with each one able change directly to the other two. Other forms are called states exist but they mainly are variations of these three.

Solid – A definite volume and definite shape.
Liquid - Definite volume but no definite shape.
Gas    - No definite volume or shape.

Plasma is commonly called the 4th State of Matter. It is an ionized gas where electrons have been freed their atoms; usually by heat. It is mainly an extreme form of gas with all defining characteristics of a gas that is no definite volume or shape. It is the most common form of normal matter.

Normal Matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are a nucleus; made of protons and neutrons; with electrons around it. This form of matter in what we commonly experience. Matter makes up everything around us, everything we see, everything we touch and even our bodies.

Matter is one of the three main parts of the Universe Space, Time and Mass. (matter) Relativity shows them to be inter-related in that space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity called space-time. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time.

In common experience matter is what makes up objects around us and Physics has shown that it to be a lot more. Matter is a fundamental part of the universe.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Nonlocality

Quantum Nonlocality: The phenomenon by which measurements made at a subatomic level necessarily refutes the notions of local realism.

The basic principle is that particles of matter are not restricted to local interactions. They can have interactions outside their local system with no limit on distance.

A cording to Bell's Theorem developed by John Stewart Bell shows that no physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of Quantum Mechanics. This does leave open the possibility of non-local hidden variables.

The implications are that subatomic particles clearly exhibit non-local behavior showing that our notions of location do not apply at the fundamental levels of reality. Quantum Nonlocality creates a link betw

Quantum Physics and Quantum Entanglement

Quantum Entanglement: A phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other, even though the individual objects may be separated in space. This results in a correlation between the observable physical properties of the systems such that a change in one object causes an instantaneous change in the other.

Because of Special Relativity it is generally thought that classical information can not be sent faster than light by this means. One reason is that the two particles need to be near each other to become entangled, or they need an intermediate particle, which has to be near one particle and then the other. However this would not prevent sending information faster than light in cases where the sender and receiver were originally near each other and then separated such as s apace ship that leaves Earth and uses such a means for communications.

In conclusion quantum entanglement is a quantum effect that has no parallel in Classical mechanics

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The Quantum Mechanics principle of Quantum Tunneling

Quantum tunneling: The process by which a particle gets across a barrier that it can not classically pass.

Quantum Tunneling is based on Wave-particle duality since it is a result of the wave nature of a particle. The probability of the particle getting through the barrier drops exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.

Y(x) =  Y(0)e-kx
Y - the wave function
e – the natural log base number.
k - particles wave number inside the barrier.
x - The distance from the start of the barrier.

k = Ö4pm(E-V)/h
m – Particle’s mass
E – Particle’s Energy
V – Barrier’s Energy
h = 6.626 X 10-34 J * S
Planck's constant
When the wave comes in contact with the barrier most of it bounces off the carrier but some passes through the barrier; however it decays exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.  Such that the amplitude of the initial wave increases then the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the barrier thickness increases, the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier decreases. If the energy of the initial wave increases, (wavelength decreases) the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the waves energy greater than that of the barrier tts all passes through the barrier. With a longer wavelength For particles most of them bounce off while a few instantly get through.
In conclusion tunneling gets subatomic particles across barriers they normally can not cross. The number of particles that gets across the barrier drops exponentially with the barrier thickness. The number of particles that gets across the barrier increases with the energy of the particle. Quantum tunneling is a purely quantum effect. It has no counter part in Classical mechanics. It could theoretically occur on the macroscopic scale but the odds are too small to ever see it happen

The Quantum Effect Known as Superconduction

Superconduction: The property that occurs in certain materials below a characteristic temperature where they have an electrical resistance of exactly zero.

Superconduction was discovered in 1911 but it was not understood for years do to the lack of a theory to understand it was not yet in place. It turns out that at the critical temperature the electrical resistance suddenly drops to zero.  This basic theory is that at the critical temperature electrons become coupled over a ranger of about 1,000 X the spacing of the conductor’s lattice with a binding energy that is the result of vibration that the electrons cause in the lattice. Called cooper pairs, the coupled electrons effectively becomes a boson and condense into the ground state. The result is that each coupled electron helps the other over come any resistance encountered from the lattice.

The Meissner Effect is where a magnetic field is expelled from a superconductor during the transition to the superconducting state that is caused by electric currents generated near its surface by the applied field. The magnetic field of these currents cancels out the applied magnetic field within the superconductor. This causes the magnetic levitation associated with superconductors.

Superconductivity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It’s most commonly known effect is magnetic levitation. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.


Tuesday, October 11, 2011

The Quantum Effect called Superfluids

Superfluid: A liquid that has no viscosity and infinite thermal conductivity.

A superfluid appears to be a normal liquid but flows without friction past any surface allowing it to continue to circulate over obstructions and through pores in its container do only to its own inertia.

All of the atoms in a superfluid are in the same quantum state so they all have the same momentum such that if one moves they all move. This allows superfluids to move without friction even through the tiniest of cracks. Superfluid helium will flow up the sides of a jar and over the top.

In conclusion superfluity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.

Monday, October 10, 2011

Atoms, Their Every Thing

Atom: The basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

The Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment was suggested by Ernest Rutherford and conducted in 1911 by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. It Involved shooting alpha particles (He nuclei) at a gold foil to observe how they are scattered by the gold on a screen. It probed the structure of the Atom.  

If it were a solid mass few if any alpha particles would get through. If negative electron were embedded in a thin positive mass all of the alpha particles would get through. However most of the alpha particles get through with some being scattered by the small positive nucleus.

Rutherford Conclusion was that the atom is mostly empty space with a small positive nucleus surrounded by electrons scattered through out the surrounding space. In such a model the electron can not stand still since if they did they fall into the nucleus

This problem led to modeling the atom as a solar system called the planetary model with electrons orbiting the nucleus like planets around a star. The problem with the planetary model is that electrons are charged particles and an accelerating charge emits light loosing energy and this would cause the electron to spiral into the nucleus.

The Bohr Atomic Model

Broglie had shown earlier that particles have wave like propertied. Bohr then used this by showed that these waves could be bent into orbits like those expected for an electron with the result that electrons can only occupy those orbits with exactly a whole number of wavelengths. In these orbits the waves are add together with constructive interference. If an orbit has a fractional number of wavelengths the wave would destructively interfere and not persist so an electron can not occupy such an obit. The result is that that electrons jump from orbit to orbit emitting photons when going to a lower orbit and absorbing photons are when going to a higher orbit. It turns out that transitions between the possible electron orbits, matches the spectral lines that are actually observed in hydrogen. This was a major step in development quantum Mechanics.

Further Development

Studying elements other hydrogen included the effects of multiple electrons resulted in the electron orbital five of which are shown above. They are places in an atom where electrons can actually be found. The shapes of these orbitals were originally found mathematically and they have long been viewed as purely mathematical abstractions that were never expected to be seen. Physics students have long been told this however field-emission electron microscopy has changed this.

In conclusion the imaging of actual electron orbitals was a surprise but it vividly shows the accuracy of Quantum Mechanics.

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Quantum Mechanics Physics

The Uncertainty Principle: The principle of Quantum Mechanics that there is a limit on the accuracy of simultaneous measurement of physical quantities like a particle's position and momentum.

The Uncertainty Principle which was published by Werner Heisenberg in 1927 was based on the fact that the light needed to observe a subatomic particle will disturb it making measurements uncertain though it goes beyond that.

DX DP ³ h/4p
X = The particles position
P = The particles momentum
Planck's constant - h = 6.626 X 10-34 J * S

Planck's constant is too small for the uncertainty principle to show up in the macroscopic world but it is significant in the subatomic world nut it results in the fact that the more accurately one measures a particle's position the less accurately one can measure its momentum and one measures a particle's momentum the less accurately one can measure its position. This does not happen just because the act of measurement disturbs the system; which it only does sometimes; it is actually related to Wave-particle duality. The same principle applies to other quantities like energy and time.

There has been a more recent development involving the debate between determinism and freewill. The idea is that the uncertainty principle is a possible avenue for allowing for freewill in neurology. The evidence involves quantum, mechanical processes like tunneling being involved in synapse activity.

The Uncertainty Principle shows us that we are limited in our ability to make measurements of the subatomic world. It shows that there are limits to our possible knowledge about the universe.

Friday, October 7, 2011

Wave-particle duality a Principle of Quantum Mechanics

Wave-Particle Duality: the tendency of for light and matter to exhibit the properties of both waves and particles. It is a key concept of quantum mechanics.

Subatomic particles exhibit this dual nature in that they some times act like particles, exhibiting properties like scattering and at other times they act like waves, exhibiting properties like interference and diffraction.

The photoelectric effect in which photons of light eject electrons from a sheet of metal just as interacting partials should behave.

The Davission-Germer experiment where an electron beam is aimed a nickel crystal and the resulting scattering has peeks and valise do to diffraction.

The wave length of a particle's wave is l = h / p.
l is the wave length
p is momentum
h = 6.626 X 10-34 J * S - Planck's constant
This relationship is just the first part of wave particle duality.

Wave actual function is denoted by Y (Psi).  While the exact formula varies with the situation, the wave function is always a complex number. It is related to the probability of finding the particle at a given point in pace.

The probability of finding a partial at a given point in space is denoted by |Y(x)|2.
Also denoted by Y* Y  .
Complex number:    Y = A + iB
Complex conjugate: Y* = A - iB
Over all space the probability density = 1.

In conclusion matter behaves as both particles and waves. The wave nature is related to the probability of finding a particle at a given location at a given time.

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Scientific Proof that the Supernatural Exists

It has been repeatedly claimed that there is no scientifically valid evidence for the supernatural; however this claim has been in the absence of a scientific definition of supernatural. It a previous article (A Scientific Definition of Supernatural ) I made the case that a supernatural event would then be any event that has a caused out side the Universe.

Based on this definition there is a scientifically recognized even that without question has to be a supernatural event. The prime evidence for this event it the fact you exist to read this article. The supernatural event I am referring to is the beginning of Universe. The fact that the universe had a beginning is a well established scientific fact.

Now regardless of how the Universe actually began it had to be started from outside itself. This is evident from the fact that until the universe existed there was no inside the universe and so the cause that started the universe had to be out side of it.

The fore the beginning of the Universe by definition has to be a supernatural event.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Declaration of a Scientific Definition of the Supernatural

Is science capable of considering and studying the supernatural? Answering this question requires there to be a scientific definition of supernatural. Unfortunately no official scientific definition of supernatural has ever been established. The reason this is the fact that there is the desire on the part of the scientific establishment to keep any consideration of the supernatural out of science. 

To find a scientific definition of supernatural it is necessary to start with a standard dictionary definition of supernatural.  According to The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language the primary definition of supernatural is “Of or relating to existence outside the natural world.”

Since the natural world consists of ther entire universe, it is logical to rephrase this definition as “Of or relating to existence outside the Universe.” This makes for a perfect scientific definition of supernatural.

So here is a perfect scientific definition of supernatural.

Supernatural: Of or relating to existence outside the Universe.
Supernatural event: Aany event that has a caused out side the Universe.

Now while this definition allows for an influence by a supernatural intelligence such as God, it does not intrinsically require that there be any intelligents involved an would include totally mechanistic causes from out side the universe.

Physics and Newton's Third Law of Motion

Newton's 3rd law: For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. Put another way when you push on an object it pushes you back.

The bases for Newton's 3rd law is the law of conservation of momentum which requires that the total change in a system’s motion to be zero. As a result moving a mass requires moving another mass in the opposite direction.

This law is commonly seen in rockets where the flame that is seen coming from the bottom of the rocket is propellant mass that is being ejected from the engines. This mass provides the action whose reaction pushes the rocket forward. Jets work on same basic principle but the main differ deference between a jet and a rocket is that jets take in air as part of their propellant mass making them more efficient than rockets since they are nor required to carry all that mass onboard.

The basic concept of Newton's 3rd law is that two masses push on each other with equal force. Equal mass will move away at the same speed. When one mass is smaller the other and if the force is kept the same, the smaller mass moves away faster and the heavier mass moves at the same speed as before. If one keeps the masses the same as in the last example but this time the force is larger then they both fly apart faster. The smaller mass still moves much faster than the larger mass.

One thing that seems a little counter interactive is the fact that when a car that is being driven down the road, the Earth is actually being pushed in the opposite direction. To be fair this affect is extremely small but it is sill not zero and the traffic that is going opposite direction averages out to zero net force. It gets even stranger since even when you are just walking around you are actually pushing the Earth in the opposite direction. Once again it is still an extremely small, in fact much smaller than in a car; but still not zero. Furthermore all the people and animals in the world the affect will still average out to be zero. Like wise when a planet moves around its star the planet pulls back on the star causing it to wobble slightly. This is a main way that extra Solar planets are detected.  

Newton's 3rd law of Motion is in boils down to the fact that when one object pushes on another object, the second object pushes back. It is an important part of every change in

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Physics and Newton's Second Law of Motion

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion: A mass acted on by a force undergoes acceleration in the direction of the force, with a magnitude inversely proportional to the mass and proportional to the force.

Newton's 2nd Law shows that a force being applied to a mass produces a steady increase in speed. Furthermore decreasing the mass and increasing the force produces a faster increase in speed and increasing the mass and decreasing the force produces a slower increase in speed.

All changes in motion are based on Newton's 2nd Law including changes in speed and direction. It is indeed fundamental to understanding of motion since without it changes in motion can not be properly understood.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Physics and Newton's first Law of Motion

Newton's 1st Law of Motion: A body will remain in rest or in motion unless acted on by an out side force  Also known as the law of inertia since inertia is the resistance to changes in motion.

Newton's 1st Law shows that an object continues to move with no change in its motion until a force is imparted on it.

Every movement we make makes use of Newton's 1st Law. Without the fist law of motion controlling motion may not even be possible. All methods of controlling motion depend on it. The 1st law of motion shows that motion remains the same without an outside force. We use it in every move we make.

Saturday, October 1, 2011

Space is Not Nothing

Space: The 3 dimensional extent in which objects and events occur, with a relative position to other objects and events.

In a more general sense space can refer to an nth dimensional hyper-volume. 

Space is often illustrated by 3 lines representing the three spacial dimensions. They are the axis of a 3d graph. In 3d space you can move in 3 directions forwards and backwards; up and down and left to right.
Not so empty space

General Relativity depicts space and time as a fabric that can be warped, bent, twisted, stretched and contracted. Quantum Mechanics describes subatomic particles coming and going even in a vacuum. Space is not empty, it is not nothing. Yes I know this is a double negative however empty space is normally thought of as nothing but it is something.
Units of Measure
Basic SI unit – meter.
meter(m):  The distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
Kilogmeter – 1000 meters
Astronomical Unit (AU): The average distance between Earth and Sun.  - 1 AU = 149,598,000 km
Light year (LY): The distance light travels in one year. Note this is a unit of distance not time. 1 ly = 9,460,528,400,000 km  1 ly = 63,240 AU (s07c)
Parsec (pc): The distance with a parallax of one arcsecond. 30,857,000,000,000 km 206,260 AU 3.26156 ly (s08d)

Most common methods of measuring space are rulers.
Odometers are another common way of measuring distance and  there by space
Other methods include bouncing light, radio waves, or sound off of an object using the return time to measure distance. These include radar and sonar.
Parallax uses geometry to measure distance it is used in Astronomy and land surveying.

Distance and position must be measured according to some standard. The standard has to be a chosen point in space. The point is selected by ether convenience or convention with out such a starting point determining distance and position is impossible..

Space is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Intern mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time.

In conclusion based on common experience space is basically where you are. You are at a particular point in space relative to other objects. Physics however has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.