Friday, September 30, 2011

It Is All About Time

Time: The dimension that is characterized by sequences of events. In physics it is seen as a 4th dimension
SI unit

second: Duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation of the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium133 atom. It was originally defined based on a day.

Other units
Minute: 60 seconds.
Hour: 60 minutes – 3600 seconds.
Day: The time needed for the sun to return to its highest in the sky. - 24 hours
Week: a period of 7 days  It is the only time unit not based on an astronomical period. It comes from the Jewish Sabbath cycle which is based on the creation week of Genesis 1.
Month: Based originally on orbital period of the moon. In the Gregorian calendar; the calendar used by most of the world; months vary from 28-31 days.
Year: The orbital period of the Earth as it moves around the Sun. It is a period of 365.2596 days. The calendar year is rounded to 365 days with a leap day every 4 years.

According to Special and General Relativity time is a 4th dimension. It is unique in that we only travel through time one way. (forward). Time is one of the three main parts of the Universe: space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time.
Perception of time

The perception of the rate of time is variable but time is always experienced in the same way. We remember the past, we exist in the present and we look forward to the future.

In conclusion our common experience time is the sequence of events we experience. Physics has shown that it is to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Dimensions: the Directions in Physics

Dimensions: Directions that are mutually perpendicular to each other.The depiction of dimensions are as an axis lines that show the direction of a particular dimension.
Building Dimensions
A point has 0 dimensions.
A point gets expanded into a line.
A lined gets expanded into a plane.
A plain gets expanded into a space.

This process can be expanded indefinitely with no theoretical limit. Despite the fact that our existence has only three spacial dimensions any number of dimensions is theoretically possible.

In physics dimensions have been classically used with space however Spacial Relativity added time as a dimension. Cosmological Relativity adds cosmic expansion velocity as a dimension. String theory uses from 10 - 26 dimensions and M theory uses 11 dimensions. Mathematically any number of dimensions is possible from zero to infinite dimensions.

Nth Dimensional Modeling is useful for describing more than physical dimensions it can model the distribution of any set of properties expressed as numbers.

While dimensions are primarily used to describe space and time though some physical theories use more than three spacial dimensions specifically string theory. They can also be used to model the distribution of non spacial properties.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

An Introduction to the Bible: God’s Holy Word

The Bible is the Christian cannon of scriptures and its Old Testament is the cannon of Jewish scripture. The Bible It is a collection of 66 books. The Old Testament has 39 books and the New Testament has 27 books. More Bibles have been printed and translated into more languages than any other book.

 The Bible is much more than a collection of religious writings. It is neither a collection of myths nor a mixture of myth and history. The Bible is made up of mainly history, law, poetry, prophecy, wisdom, doctrine and theology. No other ancient historical document is as well persevered as the Bible since it has been carefully copied from the originals and carefully translated into many languages. The Bible’s historical accounts are unusually honest for ancient historical accounts since it lacks the flattering distortions of leaders found in other cultures. The Bible openly depicts the failings of even the godliest of kings such as David.

The Bible is the most loved book ever written being cherished by millions of Christians who read and live by the Bible. Ironically the Bible is the most heated book ever written since those who hate Christians also tend to hate the Bible. It contuses to exist despite numerous efforts to destroy it by burning it, banning it and attaching its legitimacy

The Bible is the Word of God written by God through human authors through divine inspiration of their vary words making it infallible. God’s preservation of his word explains why it is so well preserved.

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

The Impact of Collisions in Physics

Collision: An event in which two or more bodies exert relatively high forces on each other for a short period of time.

Elastic collision: A collision in which the total kinetic energy of the particles before and after the encounter is the same.

Inelastic collision: A collision in which the total kinetic energy of the particles before and after the encounter is not the same.

The danger of collisions comes from sudden high acceleration that can damage cause injuries equipment and kill. It can cause damage from the deformation of object. It can cause colliding objects to shatter and fly apart at high speeds.

On the other hand collisions can hammer nails. They are used in sports such as pool, golf, and baseball. They have also been used to probe the makeup of matter by way of near light speed collisions inside particle accelerators.

In conclusion collisions are sudden interactions that can be elastic or inelastic. They can be dangerous and destructive but yet they can be useful.

Monday, September 26, 2011

A Discussion of Science of Astronomy.

Astronomy: The natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena originating outside the Earth's atmosphere. Celestial objects include stars, planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, nebulae, star clusters, globular cluster and galaxies.

The basic activity of astronomy is observing celestial objects and measuring their properties such a mss, diameter, brightness and composition. Observations are usually made by way of some form of telescope. The types of telescopes used include visible light, radio, inferred, ultraviolet, X – ray, and gamma ray telescopes.

The invention of the telescope was a giant leap in astronomy allowing observations beyond the rage of the unaided eye. Further developments in telescope have opened up whole new ways of looking at the Universe. Professional astronomy has often come to be seen as equivalent to astrophysics

In the 20th century astronomy divided into two main fields. Observational Astronomy involves acquiring data from observations and analyzing that data using physics. Theoretical Astronomy is the development of computer models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena.

Today Observational and Theoretical Astronomy complement each other. The theoretical Seeks to explain observations and observations used to test the theoretical. Amateur astronomers have also contributed to many important astronomical discoveries making astronomy one of the few sciences that amateurs can still play an active role.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

Understanding Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning: Reasoning that draws a general conclusion based on a set of examples.

Basic pattern of Inductive Reasoning
a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h are part of group A.
a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h have property G.
All member of group A have property G.

In Science it starts with observations and sees the patterns in the observations developing a hypothesis as general description of the observations.

The benefits of Inductive Reasoning are that it allows for general conclusions to be drawn from specific observations evidence, allowing conclusions based on patterns in observations and evidence.

Problems with Inductive Reasoning include the possibility that the sample size may be too small for a general conclusion. It is prone to being affected by philosophical assumptions and biases in selection of sample, in the patterns recognized, and in conclusions drawn from those

Understanding Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning: Reasoning that starts with a given set premises and draws a conclusion.

Deductive reasoning goes from general to specific by starting with a given set premises and draws conclusions from them. The conclusions are only as valid as the premises that are used and it only one false premise can produce a false conclusion. In a valid deductive argument its truth necessarily follows from the starting premises and it is sound if the argument is valid and all of its premises are true other wise it is considered unsound.

A common form of deductive reasoning is called a syllogism It has three parts.

All X has y.
A general characteristic of a category of objects.

A is X.
The object under discussion belongs to that category

A has y.
The conclusion that the object under discussion has that general characteristic.

Deductive reasoning is that it is heavily dependent on the validity of premises that are used. Premises may be facts derived from observation or a totally philosophical assumption.

For example proponents of the Big Bang Cosmology. All observations of the universe are constant with the Earth being near the center so starting with the philosophical assumption that we are totally the result of natural process; as opposed to being created by God; it is a logically valid conclusion that we can not be in a special place in the universe such as the center. So the invented an explanation for the evidence is to eliminate the center by making all locations seem to be at the center. If we were created by God then we could easily be near the center of the universe. This is why Creationists and Evolutionists can look at the same evidence and draw totally different conclusions.

Deductive reasoning is a very useful tool of reasoning however it does have its difficulties. It depends heavily on the accuracy its starting premises. However flawed premises result in flawed conclusions. These difficulties need to be properly understood to properly understand scientific statements including those of both Creationists and Evolutionists.

Friday, September 23, 2011

Observation: Viewing and Recording

Observation is the act of viewing and recording an event.
Viewing and recording are simply watching a phenomenon and recording the observations including written records, photographs or other recording devices. Observations are not always accurate because real world observations some times miss stuff. A critical event may occur when observations are not being made. 

A critical event may occur outside the range of the observer’s sight. As a result such observations can rather subjective since it is too easy for an observer to see what he wants to see because the observer is looking for what he wants to see So patterns resembling what the observer wants to see are more likely noticed. It is too easy for an observer to not see what he does not want to see because the observer is not looking for what he does not want to see and patterns not resembling what the observer wants to see can be over looked. Knowing of such problems helps avoid them.

In conclusion observations are an important scientific tool but it does have its limitations and pitfalls. Being aware of those limitations helps one to avoid them.

The uses of Measurements in Science

Measurement: The process of obtaining a numerical value representing a physical property, such as length, mass, or time, by way of a unit of measurement

Unit of Measurement: A magnitude representing a physical quantity by use of  a standard for measurement of that physical quantity.

Measuring Device: A piece of equipment used to measure a physical quantity based on a standard for measurement.

Measurement and Objectivity
Measurements are the most objective part of science because the resulting numbers are what they are. The mechanical devices used for measurement aide objectivity by removing the human factor that is human subjectivity. The validity of a measurement is only as valid as the theory behind it.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Logic it’s Reasonable

Logic is the set of principles and rules for reasoning. When used correctly and given the right starting point one will arrive at the correct conclusion.

 Deductive reasoning is reasoning that starts with a given set premises and draws a conclusion. Inductivereasoning is reasoning that draws a general conclusion based on a set of examples. So deductive reasoning goes from general principles to specific conclusions. Inductive reasoning goes from specific principles to general conclusions. Both forms of logic are used in science.

 Deductive and Inductive reasoning are different and even opposite concepts but in practice deductive and inductive reasoning are often used together even without knowing it.  For example one may be drawing a general conclusion form observed evidence (induction) based on general principles called assumptions. (deduction)

Logical fallacies are mistakes in reasoning and can be both deliberate and accidental. It is important to avoid them since they resultant in erroneous conclusions.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

The Burden of Proof in Debate in Science

Burden of Proof:  The obligation of a party to provide sufficient evidence in support of thir side of a dispute or issue.

In practical meaning the term “burden of proof” is actually a little strong because it implies the need to prove beyond a doubt. In practice it is really the burden of evidence. The side that has the burden of proof is obligated to provide evidence to back up their view point.

Determining the burden of proof is not always easy to do because it varies in different circumstances and changes in the course of the discussion.

Criteria for Finding the Burden of Proof

In general the burden of proof goes to the party making the claim. An American criminal trial is a good example of this since the prosecution has the burden of proof since the defendant is assumed innocent until proven guilty. This however is not an absolute rule since some circumstance can change the burden of proof to some one denying a claim. A party making the new claim about an accepted idea has the burden of proof. For example those claiming that the Apollo Moon landings did not really happen have the Burden of proof.

Burden of Proof fallacy

 Burden of Proof fallacy is the process of wrongfully trying to switch the burden of proof to your opponent. For example proponents of abiogenesis need to prove that it is possible because we already know that intelligence can produce complex organized systems because we already do it, though not to the degree of life. On the other hand no real evidence for abiogenesis has been produced just unproven stories about how it could have happened.

Real Burden of Proof switching.

The Burden of Proof can legitimately switch sides when new arguments have been made or evidence presented. If the opposition wishes to dispute the new evidence or argument, they have the burden of proof in doing so. Hence the burden of proof has switched.

A Discussion On Debate in Science

Debate: a formal interactive discussion of opposing ideas on a specific topic.

In science debate is a way of dealing with disputes over theory since both sides get to make their case. An example of this is debates on Creation Vs Evolution how ever it seldom actually settles the dispute.

Benefits are that both sides get to make their case and get to a chance to learn about the other side as well as their own. It works best when both sides are given equal footing respect which doses not always happen.

The problem is that debate seldom actually settles the dispute and one side can actually get insulting ruining the discussion. In practice it is only as useful as the participants’ ability to learn from it. If no one learns anything from a debate it’s a waste of time.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

The Facts About Repeatability in Science

Repeatability is the ability of a scientist’s experiments and results to be replicated by other scientists. The concept is that because physical laws are the same every place an experiment conducted by one scientist should work for any other scientist it is a way of double checking results. Repeatability is not to be confused with replicating passed events which is done to show the possibility or feasibility of that event which is a totally different from the repeatability being discussed.

Repeatability is at its best with experiments were variables can be controlled and hence replication can be as complete as possible. It does not work well for all situations. Those situations where there are difficulties in controlling variables are not easily replicated. The degree of repeatability varies from field to field.

In conclusion repeatability is important to science but it is not an absolute principle and some fields are more repeatable than others.